• Document: Silicon-Based Integrated Microwave Photonics Weifeng Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, and Jianping Yao, Fellow, IEEE (Invited Paper)
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IEEE JOURNAL OF QUANTUM ELECTRONICS, VOL. 52, NO. 1, JANUARY 2016 0600412 Silicon-Based Integrated Microwave Photonics Weifeng Zhang, Student Member, IEEE, and Jianping Yao, Fellow, IEEE (Invited Paper) Abstract— Integrated microwave photonics is an emerging field available digital-to-analog (DAC) converters set a limitation on in which photonic integrated technologies are employed to realize the sampling rate, which inhibits from generating microwave on-chip integration of microwave photonic systems with the aim waveforms at a high frequency with a large TBWP. To circum- to enrich the functionalities and enhance the system performance. Silicon photonics, as one of the various photonic integrated tech- vent the obstacles, the generation of microwave waveforms in nology platforms, has attracted worldwide attention to achieve the optical domain has been considered a potential solution, microwave photonic system integration for its compatibility with which brings the inherent advantages of broad bandwidth the current CMOS technology and its potential of seamless and low loss offered by photonics to the microwave systems. integration with electronics. In this paper, an overview about In addition, the large flexibility in frequency tuning and system our recent work on silicon-based integrated microwave photonics is presented with an emphasis on silicon-based on-chip photonic reconfiguration provides additional advantages. In the past few arbitrary microwave waveform generation and microwave signals years, numerous approaches to the generation of frequency processing. chirped and phase coded microwave waveforms based on Index Terms— Microwave photonics, silicon photonics, photonics have been proposed and demonstrated [15]–[27]. integrated photonics, photonic generation and processing of Photonic processing of microwave signals has also been a microwave signals. topic of interest and has been intensively investigated in the last few years. Compared with the conventional microwave I. I NTRODUCTION signal processing techniques based on digital or analog M ICROWAVE photonics is a field that studies the interactions between microwave and optical waves for the generation, processing, control and distribution of electronic circuits, photonic-assisted signal processing solu- tions provide a much higher speed, wider bandwidth and greater tuning range. Various techniques have been proposed microwave signals by means of photonics [1]–[6]. The key and demonstrated. These signal processors include microwave motivation of using photonics for microwave applications is filters [28], photonic temporal differentiators and integra- the wide bandwidth and low loss offered by modern photonics, tors [29], Hilbert transformers [30], microwave mixers [31], which makes the implementation of certain important func- and microwave phase shifters [32]. However, most of the tions possible while in the electrical domain the same functions signal processors were realized based on discrete components. may not be realizable or the systems become extremely For example, a photonic temporal differentiator, performing complicated and costly. In the past few years, there has temporal differentiation of the complex envelope of an been an increasing effort in researching microwave photonic arbitrary optical signal, was demonstrated using a fiber Bragg techniques for different applications. Among the applications, grating (FBG) [29] for ultra-short pulse generation [33] and photonic generation of a

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