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SEMINAR ON PILE LOAD TEST IN SINGAPORE DIFFERENT METHODS AND GOOD PRACTICES 31 Oct. 2014, RAMADA HOTEL, SINGAPORE LOAD TESTING USING KENTLEDGE AND REACTION PILE METHOD Foo Hee Kang, Managing Director Resource Piling Pte. Ltd, Singapore A Keller Group Company CONTENT 1.Why conduct load test on foundation pile 2.Kentledge load test 3.Comply with guide lines on good practices for pile load test using Kentledge method in Singapore (Issue by GeoSS on 01-09-2011) 4.Different method of load testing 5.Reaction pile method Why conduct load test on foundation pile- 1. Soil condition in Singapore very complex 2. Soil investigation report by soil investigation company unreliable.(They owe engineer/contractor no duty of care) 3. Workmanship varies from contractor to contractor 4. Economical design Geological Map of Singapore 2 SI REPORT GIVEN BH 11B BH 11 SOIL & FOUNDATION (PTE) LTD GEOSPECS PTE LTD SUGGESTION: ASK SOIL INVESTIGATION COMPANY TO PUT A PIPE ALL THE WAY TO THE TOE OF BORE HOLE, ENGINEER CAN CHECK BORE HOLE LENGTH/ SOIL SAMPLE LATER Map of Marina South BFC CST2 Garden by the Bay The Sail CST1 C421 Skin Friction 1.8N Skin Friction 1.0N Marina Barrage C906 Well establish fact Site using Bentonite-skin friction >2.5N Site using Polymer - skin friction >3.0N CP 4: 2003 Kentledge Load Test Kentledge Load Test – Failure Criteria Failure Criteria An example of the failure criteria of a pile is as follows: Maximum Nominal working 0.2mm/T but not Settlement load < 65 T more than 13mm Nominal working 25mm load > 65 T Residual Nominal working 5mm settlement load < 100 T Nominal working 13mm load > 100 T Consulting firms and agencies may have their own specifications, but the failure criteria would be likely similar to the one mentioned above. Kentledge Load Test • Prior to commencement of piling work, at least one Instrumented Ultimate Load Test must be conducted to verify the Ultimate Skin Friction and End Bearing. • Every 100 pile casted, 1 pile must be tested. Kentledge Load Test This Load Testing are either: 1.Kentledge Load Test 2.‘O’ cell Test 3.Reaction pile / Reaction Pile Load Test System Kentledge Load Test Biggest Kentledge Load Test by Resource Piling Pte Ltd (1800 ton) On Year: 1989 Kentledge Load Test Steel Mats Steel Mats Kentledge Load Test 3000 ton 3500 ton Year: 1995 Year:1997 Due to the presence of soft layer and heavy load, there are four reaction piles plus 144m2 of steel mat support for this 3500 ton Kentledge 4000 ton 4695 ton Year: 2006 Year: 2009 Ultimate Test Pile at BFC. Used 144 m2 at steel mat to support 4,000 ton Kentledge Load Test. Settlement less than 100mm. Year: 2010 5700 ton Kentledge collapse at other company site Jan/2011 Comply with guide lines on good practices for pile load test using Kentledge method in Singapore issued by Geoss on 1/9/2011. 2.0 DESIGN OF THE SETUP FOR PILE LOAD TEST STARTS IN DESIGN OFFICE Planning of pile load test setup should starts from the design office. The design of the kentledge setup should be carried out by a Professional Engineer, PE. 2.1.1 LOAD TEST EXCEEDING 3000 TONNES For larger load test exceeding 3000 tonnes, the project team can consider using steel plates, tension piles or ground anchors as the reaction load or adopting other alternative method of testing like bi-directional load test. Large load test exceeding 3000 tonnes using concrete blocks should only be carried out by competent Specialist Builder (Piling Works) and PE who has the relevant experience. 2.1.2 WEIGHT OF KENTLEDGE The total weight of Kentledge should be greater than maximum test load . This is to ensure the Kentledge will remain stable during the test. It is common to adopt

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