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Theories of Development Theories of Development Contentions, Arguments, Alternatives Second Edition Richard Peet Elaine Hartwick THE GUILFORD PRESS New York     London © 2009 The Guilford Press A Division of Guilford Publications, Inc. 72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012 www.guilford.com All rights reserved No part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher. Printed in the United States of America This book is printed on acid-free paper. Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Peet, Richard. Theories of development : contentions, arguments, alternatives / Richard Peet, Elaine Hartwick. — 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-1-60623-066-4 (hardcover : alk. paper) ISBN 978-1-60623-065-7 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Economic development.  2. Dependency.  3. Capitalism.  4.  Marxian economics. I. Title. HD75.P43 2009 338.9—dc21                              2008050378 For our parents— Eileen Migala, Harold Wilfred Peet, Anna B. Hartwick, and John A. Hartwick And our children— James C. Peet, Lukas J. Klapatch, Eric R. Peet, and Anna E. Peet               My Anna Elaine       It was while sharing a quiet moment together,       when my soft whispering to her       was answered in return       with a wondrous look and a low cooing sound       as her small hand reached out to mine       and her tiny fingers wrapped around my heart                   —ABH, August 2002 Preface T his book began as a rewrite of Global Capitalism, published by Routledge in 1991, and then of Theories of Development, published by Guilford in 1999. But it has become far more than both. Indeed, the final product contains only a few paragraphs entirely intact from the earlier works. This latest version is far more a critical survey of the main theories of development and includes more of the controversies over this vital area of knowledge. We wrote this book during a period of trans- formation in the global economy, a period when the new international division of labor entered a middle-age crisis, when the certainties of the past 40 years were increasingly viewed as precarious, when the global economy entered financial crisis. During this time, the need for funda- mental understanding, for reexamining the great attitudinal paradigms of development, took on new significance. This lent our work an urgency that, we hope, spills onto its pages, imparting to the contents some sem- blance, at least, of the somberness we felt in composing our words. The book results from long collaboration between what is now a wife-and-husband partnership. Specifically, Elaine wrote most of Chapter 7, while Richard wrote most of the rest. More generally, the book results from many conversations and collaborations stretching over spaces and times scattered across the past 45 years of our friendship. Yet, authorship should actually include many others, for—as quickly becomes evident— we draw on the works of dozens of writers in presenting anew the fin- est ideas in the field of development, spanning more than two centuries, from Adam Smith, through Karl Marx, to the contemporary feminist and poststructural thinkers. Most of the ideas that appear in this volume belonged originally to others, and we take responsibility only for the way they are presented in this instance. vii viii Preface Even so, we have not taken a passive attitude toward these ideas, content merely to present them accurately. Instead, each chapter contains a critique, some of which (especially in Part I) even undercut the very foundations on which the key ideas rest. Is this because we feel criticism to be the highest form of appreciation? Or, rather, does it result from a more pragmatic political conclusion that rethinking the essentials of development theory might ultimately result in replacing it with some- thing better? We can only say that our intention has been to survey the past in order to stimulate a new discourse about development, and this approach not only entails negative criticisms but also aims at positive reconstruction. Both of us have taught courses using the book as the key source mate- rial several times. Indeed, as we wrote the new edition, memories of past conversations wit

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