• Document: Study Guide B. Answer Key. Chemistry of Life
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Name _____________________________ Class _________________ Date _________________ Chemistry of Life Study Guide B Answer Key slightly negative oxygen atom of another SECTION 1. ATOMS, IONS, AND water molecule MOLECULES 5. A large amount of energy is needed to 1. An element is a certain type of atom. produce an increase in water temperature; 2. Sketch should resemble one of the water resists changes in temperature. illustrations in Figure 1.2 in Section 1. 6. Water molecules “stick” to each other. Nucleus should be in the center with 7. Water molecules “stick” to other protons and neutrons. Electrons should be substances. labeled in a ring surrounding the nucleus. 8. A solvent is present in greater 3. A compound is composed of atoms of concentration and dissolves the solute. different elements. 9. ions and polar molecules 4. an atom that has gained or lost one or 10. nonpolar molecules, such as fats and oils more electrons 11. Effect on H+ concentration: acids 5. the number of protons no longer equals increase H+ concentration; bases decrease the number of electrons H+ concentration 6. Sketch should resemble the first Effect on pH: acids lower pH; bases raise illustration in Figure 1.3, with one atom pH losing an electron (becoming a positive 12. Sketch should resemble Visual Vocab in ion) and the other accepting that electron Section 2 of the text. Solution: (becoming a negative ion). homogeneous mixture of substances; 7. A bond that forms between two atoms that solvent: substance present in greater share a pair of electrons. amount in which other substances 8. the number of electron pairs that it needs dissolve; solute: substance that dissolves to share to fill its outer energy level in a solvent. 9. molecule 10. compound SECTION 3. CARBON-BASED 11. element MOLECULES 12. ion 1. Carbon atoms are the basis of the 13. Ionic bonds form between oppositely- molecules that make up most living charged ions; covalent bonds form when things. atoms share a pair of electrons. 2. Carbon atoms can form covalent bonds with up to four other atoms, including SECTION 2. PROPERTIES OF other carbon atoms. WATER 3. Sketches should resemble Figure 3.1 in 1. a molecule with a slightly positively Section 3. charged region and a slightly negatively 4. broken down as a source of chemical charged region energy; part of cell structure 2. The oxygen nucleus pulls the electrons in 5. sugars, starches, cellulose the molecule more strongly than the 6. broken down as a source of chemical hydrogen atoms. The hydrogen atoms energy; part of cell structure have a slight positive charge and the 7. fats, oils, phospholipids oxygen atom has a slight negative charge. 8. many functions, including movement, 3. an attraction between a slightly positive transport, ch

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