• Document: Iodine status of pregnant women and household salt iodine concentration in rural Ada Woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia
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Iodine status of pregnant women and household salt iodine concentration in rural Ada Woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia Conference place: Desalegh Hotel By: Mengistu Fereja Presentation outline • Introduction • Objective • Methodology • Results and discussion • Conclusion • Recommendation • Acknowledgement Introduction • Iodine deficiency: – Is a major public health problem for populations throughout the world – Particularly among pregnant women and young children. – Globally 1.8 billion people have insufficient iodine intake, including 241 million of SAC (Andersson et al., 2012). cont.… • ID is associated with a wide range of abnormalities, collectively named as “IDD” (WHO, 2007). – Consequences of maternal ID during pregnancy include: • Increased risk of abortion, stillbirth, perinatal death, as well as neuromotor, behavioral and cognitive impairments (Yarrington and Pearce, 2011). cont… • In Ethiopia IDD have been recognized as a major public health problem for many decades (Abuye and Urga, 2000) – In 2011, it was estimated that 66 million people were at risk of ID (Andersson et al., 2012) – The National Survey conducted in 2005 showed high TGR of 35.8% among women of 15-49 years age (Abuye and Berhane, 2007). cont… – Concerning pregnant women, two study conducted before national salt iodization was initiated reported • 49% TGR and 60% of severe ID (UIC < 20 µg/L) in Sidama (Ersino et al., 2013) • 82.8% prevalence of ID (UIC < 150 µg/L) in Haramaya (Kedir et al., 2014). cont… • Recognizing the problem of ID in Ethiopia, the government started implementing a mandatory salt iodization program in 2012. • Assessment and monitoring system plays a fundamental role in the control of IDD. • However, there is scant information for monitoring USI in Ethiopia. • Furthermore, there is no studies addressing iodine status of pregnant women since the mandatory salt iodization program was initiated. Research objective General objective • To determine iodine status of pregnant women and household salt iodine concentration in rural Ada Woreda, Oromia region, Ethiopia Specific objectives • To assess the iodine status of pregnant women based on urinary iodine concentration (UIC) and goiter rate. • To determine the iodine concentration of the salt consumed by pregnant women. Methodology Study area • The study was conducted in six rural kebeles of Ada district, which is located 45 km South East of Addis Ababa. Study period • The study was conducted in October and November, 2014 cont… Study design • A community based, cross-sectional descriptive study Source population • All pregnant women living in the study area. Study population • Pregnant women residing in the selected kebeles and those volunteered to participate in the study. cont… Sample size Specific objectives Formula and inputs Calculated used sample size To assess the iodine n=Z2P(1-P) 362 d 2 status of pregnant women With, Z =1.96, P=82.8%, d = 5%, DEFF=1.5 and Non response rate = 10% cont… Sampling technique • A two-stage cluster sampling method – The study kebeles was selected by Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) method. – The sampling frame was developed – Finally, individual subjects were selected using systematic random-sampling technique cont… Data collection method • A structured questionnaire was used to collect data on: – Socio-demographic characteristics, – Food consumption patterns and – Knowledge of iodized salt and IDD and practice of use of iodized salt. cont… Goiter examination – Presence of goiter was examined by palpation and graded according to the recommended criteria of WHO Urine sample collection and analysis – Casual urine samples were collected in disposable plastic cups and transferred into 2 mL screw-capped plastic vial. – UIC was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). cont… Salt sample collection and analysis • Approximately 20 g of the salt were collected from participants’ homes and local shops. • Salt iodine concentration was determined using a WYD Iodine Checker (National Salt Research Center, Tianjin, China). cont… Quality control • Training was given for DC and supervisors. • A pre-test was conducted before the data collection

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