• Document: Information Content in Genetics:
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10/16/13 Information Content in Genetics: DNA, RNA and protein mRNA translation into protein (protein synthesis) Francis Crick, 1958 [Crick, F. H. C. in Symp. Soc. Exp. Biol., The Biological Replication of Macromolecules, XII, 138 (1958)] & 1970 [Francis Crick (1970) Central Dogma of Molecular Biology. Nature 227:561-563] proposed idea of Central Dogma that was revised later by inclusion of retrovirus reverse transcription from RNA to DNA and then back to RNA. 1 10/16/13 In prokaryotes DNA replication, DNA transcription into RNA and translation of mRNA into proteins by ribosomes all occur in the cytoplasm. In eukaryotes DNA replication, DNA transcription into RNA, and RNA processing all occur in the nucleus and protein synthesis on ribosomes occurs in the cytoplasm. Eukaryotes have many more levels of regulation in the expression of the genetic code than do bacteria. https://www.mun.ca/biology/scarr/iGen3_05-09_Figure-L.jpg. jmp 13Sep2013 Eubacterial and eukaryotic protein synthesis have the same general pattern but there is more complexity in the eukaryote system. http://origin-ars.els-cdn.com/ content/image/1-s2.0- S0959440X09000700-sc1.jpg. jmp 11Sep2013 2 10/16/13 Prokaryote Protein Synthesis (mRNA Translation) Initiation Initiation Factors IF1 and IF3 assist the 30S ribosomal subunit to align correctly with the mRNA with its 5’ Shine-Dalgarno sequence matching the 3’ anti-Shine- Dalgarno sequence of the 16S rRNA. IF2 brings the formylMethionine-tRNA complex to pair with the mRNA start codon AUG as IF3 falls off. Now the large 50S ribosomal subunit with its 23S and 5S rRNAs can bind the small ribosome-mRNA-fMet-tRNA complex in order for protein synthesis to proceed. http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v475/n7354/ images_article/nature10126-f3.2.jpg. jmp 12Sep2013 http://bass.bio.uci.edu/~hudel/bs99a/ lecture23/hudel_27_18.jpg. jmp 11Sep2013 Prokaryote Protein Synthesis Elongation http://www.mun.ca/biology/ desmid/brian/BIOL2060/ BIOL2060-22/22_10.jpg. jmp 12Sep2013 3 10/16/13 There is a unique aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase for each amino acid-tRNA combination to ensure information integrity. See figure to the right. http:// http://www.rcsb.org/pdb/education_discussion/ canmedia.mcgrawhill.ca/istudy3/books/0070741751/images/figures/ molecule_of_the_month/images/aaRS.gif. jmp 12SEp2013 bro41751_1115L_lg.jpg. jmp 12Sep2013 The tRNA is the golden molecule to the left. Note the red spheres at the bottom representing the anticodon and the top red spheres where the amino acid phenylalanine is attached to

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