• Document: Marine Biology. Worksheet II: Selected Answers. Invertebrates and Algae
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Marine Biology Worksheet II: Selected Answers Invertebrates and Algae Chapter 4: Taxonomy Section at End 1. What are some differences between Kingdom(Domain) Bacteria and Kingdom (Domain) Archaea? Prokaryotic bacteria were separated into these two Kingdoms (Domains) recently when new techniques to analyze DNA showed that there were two groups pr prokaryotic bacteria that differed significantly in their genetic composition. Kingdom (Domain) Archaea were originally thought to be extremophiles - lovers of extreme environments such as hot springs and hydrothermal vents. However, new sampling techniques have shown Archaea to be very common in the marine environment. Kingdom (Domain) Bacteria includes common bacteria including species that cause strep throat and staph infections. 2. Plant and animals are in Domain Eukarya. How do the cells of plants and animals differ from the cells of organisms in Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea? The cells of organisms in Domain Eukarya have a membrane bound nucleus and have membrane bound cellular organelles. Organisms in Domain Bacteria and Domain Archaea are prokaryotic. That means that their cells lack a nucleus. 3. Define the term “Biological Species”. What are some of the problems with this species definition? If two organisms belong to the same species they must be able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring. This definition is not useful if one is studying single celled organisms that reproduce asexually by simple cell division. This definition is not useful if one is a palaeontologist that studies fossils. 4. List the 7 taxonomic ranks form in order stating with Kingdom and ending with species. Kingdom P_________ C________ O_________ F_________ G_______ Species 2 Chapter 5: The Microbial World 5. Define the term detritus: 6. What role do decay bacteria play in marine ecosystems? 7. Can cyanobacteria be considered primary producers? Explain. 8. What are stromatolites? 9. Photosynthetic bacteria use light as an energy source. What do chemosynthetic bacteria use as an energy source? ____________________ 10 What is meant by the term “nitrogen fixation”? Give an example of a group of organisms that are capable of fixing nitrogen. 11. Describe the difference between the terms plankton and nekton. (See glossary in text) Plankton Nekton 12. Describe the difference between the terms phytoplankton and zooplankton. (See glossary in text) Phytoplankton Zooplankton 3 13. Diatoms and Dinoflagellates belong to Kingdom ____________________. Describe at least two differences between diatoms and dinoflagellates. Diatoms Dinoflagellates Silica or glass shell Outer covering is cellulose Maintains position close to Maintains position close to surface with surface with an oil filled flagella vacuole. Both organisms are found in surface waters since they need light for photosynthesis Both organisms are components of phytoplankton 14. Foraminiferans and Radiolarians are in Kingdom___________________. Describe at least two differences between foraminiferans and radiolarians. Foraminiferans Radiolarians Shell is composed of limestone Shell is composed of silica dioxide (glass) (Calcium carbonate) Most species of foraminiferans Radiolarians are planktonic live on the bottom 15. What does the term bioluminescence mean? Give an example of an organism that is bioluminescent. 16. What are red tides? Massive blooms of phytoplankton. The organisms that cause red tides include dinoflagellates. Since only about half the organisms that are known to cause red tides are dinoflagellates a better name for red tides is Harmful Agal Blooms (HAB’s). 17. What are zooxanthellae and why are they important to coral reefs? Zooxanthellae are dinoflagellates (phytoplankton) that live inside the tissues of corals in a symbiotic relationship known as mutualism. This is a relationship where both organisms benefit by living together. The coral is a carnivore that grows in nutrient poor waters. Nitrogen is a major limiting factor for phytoplankton growth in nutrient poor waters. The coral supplies the dinoflagellate with nitrogenous waste products from protein metabolism. (Remember carnivores eat meat which is protein). The dinoflagellate(zooxanthellae) are capable of photosynthesis and feed the coral glucose which enables it to grow faster than would be possible without

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